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Full text of "On the healthy manufacture of bread; a memoir on the system of Dr. Dauglish"

WI LLIAM 

THOMPSON 
SEDGWICK 



The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 




UCSB LIBRARY 
X- 



ON THE 

HEALTHY MANUFACTURE 
OF BREAD. 



ir on tfje Astern of 3Dc. HDaug;li0f), 



BY 

BENJAMIN WARD RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S. 



ILonBon : 

BAILLIERE, TINDALL, & COX, 
KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND. 

1884. 
[A II rights reset ved. ] 



Printed by Hazetl, Watson, and I'iney, Limited, London and Aylcslmry 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



PREFATORY . 



CHAPTER II. 

DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION OF THE RADICAL CHANGE 
IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BREAD BY HIS 

METHOD ........ 6 

CHAPTER III. 
MANUFACTURE OF BREAD BY FERMENTATION. . I"] 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE COURSE OF DISCOVERY TOWARDS THE MANU- 
FACTURE OF AERATED BREAD . 25 



CHAPTER V. 
THE ORIGINAL DAUGLISH PROCESS . 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS 



3 2 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VII. 
WHEAT BREAD AND FLOURS . . 49 

CHAPTER VIII. 
FERMENTATION AND AERATION A CONTRAST. . 58- 

CHAPTER IX. 

ECONOMIC AND SANITARY ADVANTAGES TO THE 
WORKMEN BY THE AERATED SYSTEM OF BREAD 
MANUFACTURE 68 

CHAPTER X. 

PUBLIC ADVANTAGES OF AERATED BREAD, IN 

RELATION TO HEALTH 8 1 

APPENDIX. 
A BRIEF PERSONAL OUTLINE OF THE LIFE OF 

DR. DAUGLISH . . . . . -97 




CHAPTER I. 




PREFATORY. 

a time when the public mind 
has become most attentive to all 
subjects having reference to do- 
mestic sanitation, I have thought 
it would be opportune to publish a short 
work on the labours of the late Dr. Daug- 
lish, and on his system of bread manufacture. 
What claim I have to speak upon this 
subject rests on the following facts : 

In 1862, while conducting The Social 
Science Review, I wrote an article in that 
paper on modern bread making. Dauglish, 
as ingenious and earnest a sanitarian, as well 
as social reformer, I ever remember to have 
met, called upon me thereupon to explain his 
method of bread making, then in its first 



PREFATORY. 



days. He entirely gained my attention to 
it, and awakened an interest which has never 
abated. Actuated by what he told me, I was 
tempted to institute inquiries on a subject of 
which I previously knew very little, and was 
led to contribute further articles on bread 
manufacture, and on the grievances to which 
the bakers of the metropolis were subjected. 

A lecture in the old Hanover Square 
Rooms, on March lyth, 1864, over which 
lecture Lord Ebury presided, drew my mind 
still closer to the study of bread manufacture. 
The lecturer was a master baker, and with 
excellent skill, backed by practical knowledge 
of many years' acquirement, he placed before 
us, in terms not easily to be forgotten, the fact 
that in London at that time twelve thousand 
men were compelled to labour night and day, 
apparently for no other reason than the 
precedent of an unnatural and absurd custom. 
He showed that with their families these 
men formed a community in London of over 
twenty-five thousand people, and he described 
the work and the mode of work in a manner 
which startled many of us by its revelations 
of bad sanitation, bad alike for workers and 
consumers. 



PREFATORY. 



Later on, when I had examined for myself, 
and had come to know a considerable num- 
ber of facts relating to the condition of the 
workers in the baking trade, I began to study 
the processes of manufacture simply as such, 
and so reverted to the system Dr. Dauglish 
had explained to me, comparing and contrast- 
ing it with the other methods in common use. 

By degrees I was led to a still closer 
connection with and study of the Dauglish 
method, and since the lamented death of the 
inventor I have for several years taken* a 
special part in it as a director and scientific 
adviser of the company which he founded. 

If only out of respect to the memory of 
Dr. Dauglish, and to place his, as yet, little 
appreciated work again before the world, I 
should be content to write this brief memoir. 
But there are other reasons which add to the 
desire. I am convinced, from careful and 
prolonged observation, that the Dauglish 
method of bread manufacture is on the whole 
the best that has been discovered. Accord- 
ing to my appreciation of it, it is the cleanliest 
of all the processes known and followed ; it calls 
for less drudgery, and, it is not unjust to say, 
less objectionable labour, from the employed 



PREFATORY. 



in bread manufacture ; it inflicts less arduous 
toil, and so lessens the rapid wearing out of 
the body, which is an unfortunate fate of 
many of those who are engaged in the manu- 
facture of the staff of life ; it supplies a purer 
article to those who depend, largely, upon 
the staff of life for their daily aliment. Lastly, 
it supplies, I think, a better article, one which 
gives to the public the fullest food value that 
can be got out of the corn from which the 
food is made, and which enables the manu- 
facture of all kinds of flour or meal, white 
meal, mixed meal, whole meal, to be most 
completely and most easily produced. 

For these reasons, apart from any in which 
mere kindly sentiment for the inventor is 
concerned, it occurs to me that the task of 
writing the coming pages is well deserving 
the labour that may be bestowed upon it. 

The Dauglish system, as it stands at the 
present moment, may be considered as prac- 
tically perfected. The inventor left a few 
details, which, though important, did not 
affect the general principle he had in view, 
and which he brought into practice. Those 
details have been one by one introduced, and 
the whole system has been brought to such 



PREFATORY. 



excellent working that any demand for bread 
made by it can be met. How far an 
extremely large demand has been met, how 
steadily, and how increasingly, is open now 
to the public observation in London every 
day. 

The practical working and completion of 
the Dauglish method is another and final 
reason for the present exposition of it as a 
part of the social history of this great city at 
the present period of its development. 

In carrying out the duty conveyed by the 
nature of the task I shall, as far as possible, 
in referring to the process which Dauglish 
introduced, and to the difficulties in the 
manufacture of bread which he endeavoured 
to rectify, allow him, through what he has 
left behind him, to speak for his invention in 
his own words and mode of expression. These 
were always clear, concise, and sufficient. 




CHAPTER II. 

DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION OF THE RADICAL 
CHANGE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BREAD 
BY HIS METHOD. 

JR. DAUGLISH, in one of his 
earliest attempts to make his pro- 
cess known, explained that a lecture 
delivered by Professor Odling be- 
fore the Society of Arts and Manufactures 
conveyed to him unmistakably that nearly, if 
not quite, all the evils complained of in the old 
system of bread manufacture viz., the spoil- 
ing of the flour, the necessity for using alum, 
the long hours of labour, and the consequent 
unhealthiness of the trade of the baker arise 
out of the employment of fermentation for 
the raising of bread. 

He next, in explanation of his design, 



DAUGLISITS EXPOSITION. 



described that bread-making essentially con- 
sists in completely incorporating flour, water, 
salt, and carbonic acid with each other in 
such a manner as that they shall form a 
tenacious, elastic, and bulky mass, in which 
the aeriform constituent bears to the solid a 
proportion of about three or four to one, and 
which on being placed in the oven and 
thoroughly baked shall swell to about double 
this proportion. 

After setting forth these simple proposi- 
tions, Dauglish proceeded to show that while 
the mechanical difficulties that lie in the way 
of improvement in manufacture are overcome 
with moderate facility, there was up to his 
time another series of difficulties which were 
not so easily managed. These he called the 
chemical difficulties, and he explained them 
briefly in such terms as follow : 

" The mechanical part of bread-making is 
very easy of accomplishment, and its results, 
like all other mechanical processes, can always 
be relied on with certainty. It is the chemi- 
cal part out of which all the difficulties and 
uncertainties arise, and which has presented 
the only obstacle in the way of bread 
manufacture participating in that marvellous 



DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 



progress of the industrial arts which is the 
most distinguishing feature of the present 
age." 

What the nature of the chemical difficulties 
is he defines in a further exposition. 

"The chemical changes within the sub- 
stance of the dough, which it is the object 
of the baker to effect, are those which shall 
result in the alcoholic fermentation' of trans- 
formed starch or glucose, whereby these 
bodies are broken up into alcohol and car- 
bonic acid, which latter the carbonic acid- 
is the only product desired, but which cannot 
be obtained without the previous transforma- 
tion or degradation, more or less, of the 
constituents of the flour. 

In the first operation of bread making 
the preparation of the sponge the baker 
mixes up together into a soup-like paste 
flour, warm water, and yeast or leaven ; this 
he allows to stand for some hours, during 
which active fermentation is set up, and 
bubbles of carbonic acid are rapidly formed 
and rise to the surface. The prolonged action, 
of warmth and moisture, combined with that 
of the yeast or leaven, change the whole 
body of paste into a ferment sufficient to 



DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 



affect a large quantity of flour when incorpo- 
rated with it. In forming a sponge the 
necessity of using a large quantity of yeast 
is avoided on the one hand, while the length 
of time that would otherwise be required for 
putting the whole of the flour into a state of 
active fermentation is considerably shortened, 
and the deterioration of the flour, which is 
caused by the prolonged action of warmth 
and moisture, is proportionately lessened." 

Dr. Dauglish observed, in relation to the 
above account of the common process all but 
exclusively in use in his day, that when sound 
flour is employed the true alcoholic fermenta- 
tion is only the later stage of what is termed 
the panary fermentation. It is in that stage 
that the yeast acts upon the glucose or grape 
sugar so as to break it up into alcohol and 
carbonic acid. But as in sound flour there is 
very little, not more than a trace of, sugar, 
and as in it the gluten is wholly or almost 
wholly unaltered, certain portions of the 
starch of the flour and of the gluten must 
have passed through the necessary changes 
for the alcoholic fermentation to act. This 
is done in the sponge, when the gluten, by its 
own spontaneous tendency to change under 



io DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 

these conditions, assisted by the yeast, be- 
comes metamorphic, and immediately acts 
upon the starch, changing the starch into 
dextrine and grape sugar, with propagation 
of the yeast plant at .the expense of a small 
portion of the gluten. The sponge, there- 
fore, yields, when the flour is sound, all the 
materials, the dextrine and glucose, the 
diastase and the yeast, in a state ready to 
pass into active alcoholic fermentation, and 
to give up the necessary bubbles of carbonic 
acid immediately their complete incorporation 
with the flour is secured. 

If all flour that is employed for the manu- 
facture of bread were sound, the rule of 
decomposition defined above would be very 
definite. But when the flour is unsound a 
very different state of things is presented. 
Unsound flour, Dr. Dauglish pointed out, 
is flour in which some of the changes on 
which panary fermentation depends have 
taken place to a greater or smaller extent, 
and which are somewhat analogous to malt- 
ing. " The gluten has already become 
metamorphic, and the starch partly or wholly 
changed into dextrine or glucose. The 
gluten has lost more or less of its elasticity, 



DAUGLISITS EXPOSITION. 



and is ready, immediately on the application 
of warmth and moisture, not only to pass 
rapidly into a state of solution, but to act 
with the greatest energy on the partially 
changed starch, completing its alteration into 
glucose, so that a running sticky mass results 
from the attempt at fermentation. 

It is seen from these facts that when the 
ordinary method of fermentation, by means 
of yeast, is carried out with an inferior class 
of flour, the results of the fermentation are 
most uncertain, and may be most objection- 
able in so far as the quality of the product, 
the bread, is concerned. Nor does such a 
statement of fact include all that has to be 
told, for Dauglish detected that the same 
state of things may be, and indeed often is, 
brought about when even sound flour has 
been used either by inexperienced persons, 
who do not understand the management of 
fermentation, and the' length of time or 
temperature necessary, or by peculiar states 
of and changes in the atmosphere, by which 
the fermentative operations are so rapidly 
hastened in the earlier stages as to become 
almost or quite unmanageable. 

Between perfectly sound flour and that 



12 DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 

which runs, in the manner described, on the 
application of a ferment, Dauglish showed 
that there are indefinite shades of varieties. 
In these varieties of change he traced out 
the derangements and irregularities which 
are met with in establishments where attempts 
are made to produce bread on a large scale 
by division of labour, and to turn it out ready 
for use at regular times; and when he had 
fully exhibited all the drawbacks connected 
with the then existing systems he proceeded 
to explain the new system which he had 
invented, and which was founded on the 
radical improvement of doing away with the 
process of fermentation altogether in the 
manufacture of bread. 

In introducing this radical modification he 
did, in fact, more than he seems to have been 
fully aware of at the time. It turned out 
afterwards that in the manufacture of whole 
meal bread, and of the'bread commonly known 
as brown bread, the old or fermentation 
method was not directly applicable ; that the 
flour out of which such bread had to be made 
must be added to other and finer flour in a 
state of fermentation before a loaf could be 
produced ; and that in consequence two 



DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 13 

distinct processes had to be carried out in 
order to produce one result. It turned out 
also that, by the new process, one action 
alone was called for, and that through every 
step of manufacture of the whole meal, or 
brown, or coarse bread, the result was as 
successful as if fine or white flour had 
been manipulated. Why this should be so 
will be shown further on, but it deserves to 
be mentioned thus early in order to indicate 
how excellent the new process was, and how 
good it was from the moment of its inception. 
It has been brought forward as an advan- 
tage of the Dauglish process that it would 
enable' manufacturers, if it were generally 
adopted, to bring into daily consumption 
more nutritious kinds of flour in place of the 
expensive fine wheaten flour which is still 
in common use. It was the inventor's pure 
and simple-minded pride that he had dis- 
covered a means by which this desirable end, 
tending towards national thrift and economy, 
could be realized. For although, as he stated, 
it is quite true that some of the coarser flours, 
owing to the existence in them of unstable 
albuminoid compounds, have often commenced 
to undergo a process of panary fermentation 



i 4 DAUGLISITS EXPOSITION. 

which renders the after or baker's process un- 
certain, it is not to be understood that such 
flours are therefore valueless, and to be cast 
aside as food that cannot be applied for the 
wants of the people. On the contrary, such 
flours can be so utilized by the new process 
as to be transformed into bread as light and 
edible as any other, and to many persons 
preferable to all other. I for one prefer a 
bread which is not made of the whitest 
wheaten flour, in which the starchy material 
and the gluten form the only constituent 
parts of much nutrient value, and I agree 
in this particular with many more. 

We have, indeed, in these last few years, 
largely owing to the indefatigable exertions 
of Miss Yates, become very familiar with 
what is.now known as "whole meal bread." 
The fact that such bread contains all the 
essential food elements supplied by the grain 
of wheat is now well recognized, and under 
the improvements which have been intro- 
duced for decortication of the grain, so as 
to retain the useful and remove the hurtful 
parts, we have obtained on a large scale a 
whole-meal flour which is fast coming into 
general use. The greatest obstacle to the 



DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 15 

general use of whole-meal flour has arisen 
from the difficulty of converting it by the 
fermentation process, and by one single and 
continuous act, into bread. This difficulty 
and the reason for it will be explained more 
fully in a future page, as dependent on the 
interference of a fermenting substance in the 
outer coating of the wheat grain, called 
cerealine. It is sufficient for me to say, in 
this place, that when instead of the slow and 
indirect process of fermentation for the pro- 
duction of whole-meal bread, the aerated 
method is adopted, all the difficulties dis- 
appear, and the loaf from whole-meal is 
as easily and quickly manufactured as that 
from any other flour, including the so-called 
finest kind of wheaten flour. Hence, for the 
manufacture of whole-meal bread for public 
institutions the system has been employed 
on the largest scale and with the most 
complete success, while since the whole- 
meal has become popular in the community 
generally the same plan has been continued 
with an equal advantage and readiness, no 
modification of machinery or procedure being 
demanded or introduced. 

In summary, the Dauglish process answers 



1 6 DAUGLISH'S EXPOSITION. 

as well for the finest wheat flour as for the 
coarser kinds, while it gives to the coarser 
kinds advantages of manufacture which no 
other process does. It enables whole-meal 
to be made into good bread by one step, an 
advantage exclusively its own ; and should 
the day ever unfortunately come when, in 
this country, the finer kinds of flour were 
not generally obtainable, that is to say, if 
the people had ever to depend for the staff 
of life on coarser flours than the white flours 
now usually sold, the Dauglish system 
would be soon recognized as the only one 
fitted to meet the emergency with effective- 
ness and economy. 





CHAPTER III. 

MANUFACTURE OF BREAD BY FERMENTATION. 

fOR the sake of making the reader 
fully acquainted with the distinc- 
tive character of the Dauglish 
process for the manufacture of 
bread, it will be well to give, in a short 
chapter, the method by fermentation which 
it is intended to supersede. 

One of the tersest and best descriptions 
of the fermentation process with which I am 
acquainted, is that supplied by Mr. John 
Bennett, who was for many years the secre- 
tary of the London Co-operative Bakers' 
Association, in the Report to the Secretary 
of State relative to the grievances complained . 
of by journeymen bakers, published in 1862. 
Bennett worked as an operative baker for 

2 



i8 



upwards of thirty years, and I prefer to 
follow his description, with the exception of 
a few details, to any that I could furnish 
from my own observation, although I have 
been a witness to the procedure many times, 
and have before me many notes upon it, 
taken at the time of observation. 

STEP THE FIRST. 

The first process, Bennett tells us, for 
making bread on the large scale, as for con- 
sumption in London, consists in producing the 
"ferment," which is usually done from eleven 
to twelve o'clock in the day. It takes about 
ten minutes to do it. 

The mixture, or ferment, is made as 
follows : 

Potatoes in the proportion of one pound 
and a half to the bushel of flour, or nine 
pounds to a sack of flour, the sack holding 
six bushels, weighing altogether two hundred 
and eighty pounds are first boiled and then 
mashed in a tub. Two quarts of hot water 
are added, and the mash is well stirred. 
When the mixture of water and of potatoes 
is complete, cold water is added, until the 
whole is cooled down to 80 Fahr. After 



BREAD BY FERMENTATION. 19 

this, yeast one quart of brewer's yeast is the 
usual quantity is mixed up with the mash 
in the tub, and about two pounds of flour are 
added (that is to feed the yeast), and the 
whole covered over and allowed to stand 
from six to seven hours. If what jis called 
" patent yeast " is used, the water that is 
added to the mash is left at from 90 to 100 
Fr., instead of 80. The mixture is called 
the ferment. It ferments to a "head," and 
then falls once, and sometimes twice. It is 
ready for use when the fermentation has 
ceased. 

STEP THE SECOND. 

At about five or six in the evening the 
"' ferment" is ready to be mixed with one- 
fourth part of the flour which is to be made 
into the bread. This is commonly called 
" setting the sponge." The admixture is 
usually made with the arms of the workman, 
water being added in sufficient quantity, from 
seven to eight gallons to make " the sponge." 
If one sack of flour (200 Ibs.) is used, it will 
take one man from a quarter of an hour to 
twenty minutes to complete the admixture. 
Two men would do two sacks in about half 



20 MANUFACTURE OF 

an hour, or three sacks in about three- 
quarters of an hour. " It is very hard work." 
The " sponge " remains from five or six in 
the evening until about midnight, in order 
to undergo the process of fermentation. It 
rises the first time in about four hours, then 
it falls. It rises a second time in about three- 
quarters of an hour to an hour afterwards. 
Between these hours of setting the sponge 
and completing the fermentation the working 
baker gets most 'of his night's sleep. 

STEP THE THIRD. 

So soon as the sponge is ready the remain- 
ing three-fourths of the flour which is to be 
made into bread is added, and the w T orkman 
proceeds to mix the added flour with the 
sponge, with more water, and with about 
three pounds of common salt. The water 
now added is about eight gallons, the whole 
quantity of water required for every stage of 
the process of making bread from the finest 
flour being sixteen gallons to the sack of 
two hundred and eighty pounds' weight. 

The term used in the trade, according to 
Bennett, is not " kneading," as is commonly 



BREAD BY FERMENTATION. 21 

supposed, but " making the dough," although 
it is really a kneading process. It takes one 
man about three-quarters of an hour to make 
a sack of five bushels into dough. This is 
the hardest work which the journeyman has 
to do. The sack of flour weighing two 
hundred and eighty pounds turns out a yield 
of ninety-one loaves, of four pounds each, 
after standing twenty-four hours. 

" After the dough is made it stands, 
according to the kind of yeast used, or 
whether the weather be hot or cold, from 
half an hour to two hours ; " shorter if the 
yeast used be of best quality and the weather 
be warm, and viee versa. 

During this interval, Mr. Bennett states, 
the journeymen first take some refreshment, 
which they call their breakfast, and then lie 
down in their clothes upon the boards. They 
spread a sack or two upon the boards, and 
put a tin under their heads for a pillow, some- 
times with a sack folded upon it, sometimes 
without. These " boards " are the boards 
on which the dough is weighed out, and then 
moulded into the form of the loaf before it is 
placed in the oven. The tin is the baking 
tin for the " tinned bread." 



22 MANUFACTURE OF 

STEP THE FOURTH. 

The journeymen, when they get up from 
the boards, about two in the morning, proceed 
to weigh off the pieces of dough, which are 
put aside as they are weighed. When all 
the dough is weighed off, the process of 
moulding the loaves commences, and the loaves 
are put into the oven as fast as they are 
moulded. The boards on which the bread is 
weighed and moulded are scraped and brushed 
every time they are used, and many masters 
have them washed once a week ; but the 
moisture left from washing has a tendency, 
in the opinion of some masters, to make the 
bread sour. 

STEP THE FIFTH. 

From two to three in the morning until 
five the bread remains in the oven, where it 
is exposed to a temperature of 400. There 
it passes through the process of complete 
cooking, with the formation of crust. The 
bread is withdrawn, and the process of its 
manufacture is completed. It is set aside to 
cool, and after a short time it is ready for 
delivery. 



BREAD BY FERMENTATION. 23 

COMMENT ON THE FERMENTATION PROCESS. 

The fermentation process of bread manu- 
facture is, as will be seen from the above, 
a slow and elaborate chemical procedure, 
requiring much manual labour, care, and en- 
durance. It can scarcely be called a cleanly 
process, because by necessity it brings the 
workmen more closely than is pleasant into 
personal contact with the materials which they 
are transforming into food. Be the workmen 
ever so cleanly, they are still performing a 
part which it would be well to relieve them 
from if the relief were possible, an idea which 
the least fastidious persons would speedily 
realize if they could only see how, in the 
various steps of its manufacture, the bread 
.which comes to their tables, after the fer- 
mented process, is turned out from stage to 
stage. 

It might be expected that Mr. Bennett's 
description, good as a history of what was 
going on in the baking trade twenty-two 
years ago, was altogether out of date in these 
days, when sanitation has made such striking 
headway, and when the word health is as 
common in every one's mouth as I myself or 



24 MANUFACTURE OF BREAD. 

any other health reformer could wish it to 
be. I regret, however, to be obliged to state 
that this expectation is not realized. There 
is, I believe, no occupation in which so few 
improvements of a sanitary kind have been 
generally introduced. In the large majority 
of bakeries the ancient errors still prevail, as 
a quite recent investigation has most clearly 
shown, nor is it likely that many of the more 
serious errors can be reformed while yeast is 
employed as the generator of the carbonic 
acid by fermentation, and while a sponge 
must be set for every batch of bread that 
has to be produced. 

Beyond these faults, there are others which 
can scarcely be avoided. In order to meet 
the irregularities of fermentation, which are 
incident to varying qualities of flours, alum 
or other substances have to be employed to 
regulate the fermenting process. This will 
be more fully indicated in a future chapter. 




CHAPTER IV. 




THE COURSE OF DISCOVERY TOWARDS THE 
MANUFACTURE OF AERATED BREAD. 

E are led now to the modification in 
the method of making bread which 
was introduced in a practical form 
by Dr. Dauglish, and to which the 
name of the aerated process has been given, 
and to the product of which the term " aerated 
bread " has been applied. 

The distinguishing term very aptly defines 
what is meant. The bread turned out by 
the aerated process is not subjected to any 
method by which carbonic acid gas is pro- 
duced from the action of a ferment. The 
, necessary impregnation with gas is effected 
by forcing carbonic acid, made by a pure 
chemical procedure, into the mixture of flour 



26 THE COURSE OF DISCOVERY 

and water without any intermediate ferment- 
ing stage. 

It is not claimed for Dauglish that he 
conceived originally the idea of making' 
bread by this direct method. 

In order to get at the root of the process 
we must go back to the labours of the illus- 
trious Joseph Priestley, who in the last century, 
in his famous researches with fixed air, since 
called carbonic acid gas, found that this gas 
could be held by water, and from that circum- 
stance invented the plan of impregnating 
water with the gas and producing aerated 
waters. 

This curious and valuable discovery had 
the most important influences in various 
ways. Indirectly it led to the compression 
of gases. Directly it led to the commercial 
introduction of aerated drinks and of aerated 
bread. It has yet to lead to other discoveries, 
perhaps still more remarkable. 

Dauglish himself, in his valuable evidence 
before Mr. Tremenhere, refers to those au- 
thorities who, previously to him, had thought 
of the same subject, namely, to Professor John- . 
ston, Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of Durham, who published a paper on the sub- 



TOWARDS AERATED BREAD. 27 

ject in 1847 5 to an anonymous physician, who 
wrote a pamphlet in the year 1846, entitled 
" Instructions for Making Unfermented 
Bread"; and tc the great chemist, Professor 
Thomas Thomson, formerly Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Glasgow, who 
in 1 8 1 6 showed that the only purpose secured 
by fermentation in bread-making is the gene- 
ration of the carbonic acid required to raise 
the dough, an end that could be attained 
by the use of carbonate of soda and muriatic 
acid, by which the waste consequent on 
fermentation would be largely saved. 

The claim that has to be made for Daug- 
lish is that he practically discovered the mode 
by which carbonic acid could, under pressure, 
be introduced in water to the flour, and so act 
on the flour as to make it become a light 
dough, as if it had been leavened. Even 
here we cannot say that he had not been to 
some extent anticipated in conception, al- 
though he did not know the fact at the time 
of his invention. 

There was an inventor by the name of 
Luke Hebert, who in 1836 brought out a 
patent for manufacturing bread by machinery, 
in which aerated water, charged with car- 



28 THE COURSE OF DISCOVERY 

bonic acid, was the agent used for raising the 
dough. Hebert, like Dr. Dauglish, was an 
enthusiast on the subject of aerated bread ; 
and he set forth the value of his invention 
in language rarely met with in the terms 
and specifications of a patent. The manu- 
facture of bread, he says, surpasses all others 
in extent, but hitherto it has not been treated 
as a manufacture ; the homely and unscien- 
tific practices of past ages remain in all their 
pristine impurity and wastefulness. To please 
the eye, the most nutritive and agreeable 
properties of the wheat are partially destroyed 
or deteriorated. To economize and purify 
the "staff of life" appears to have been an 
object either unworthy of the attention or 
degrading to the study of philosophers or 
mechanics, while that of a candlewick and 
numerous other " trifles light as air " have 
been the objects of much elaborate investi- 
gation and of public patronage. He then 
declares, as a fact capable of demonstration, 
that the present system of supplying the 
public with bread is equivalent to an un- 
necessary tax upon the people of these 
kingdoms of fifteen millions annually, the 
whole of that enormous sum being swallowed 



TO WA RDS A ERA TED BREA D. 29 

up in wasteful processes and needless com- 
mercial operations. 

In Hebert's process the whole of the 
rendering of corn into bread was performed 
in one place, and at one time. He essayed 
to be miller and baker in combination in one 
manufactory. The grain was delivered into 
the receiving room of the manufactory, where 
it was examined and weighed. This done, 
it was hoisted through a shaft, charged with 
warm air, into a room at the top of the build- 
ing, and delivered on a creeper to any part 
of the several garners. When the wheat was 
required it was allowed to run down into the 
clearing and drying room for the purpose of 
being sifted, screened, and prepared. Then 
it was made to descend into the cooling and 
grinding garners. After the grain was 
ground and dressed, the flour it had yielded 
was raised into the flour garners, the offal 
being distributed into sacks to be carried 
away. 

For converting the flour into bread, it 
was first mixed with the requisite quantity of 
finely-ground salt, and then put into hoppers 
which served the twofold purpose of measur- 
ing the quantity and of conducting the flour 



3 o THE COURSE OF DISCOVERY 

into the mixing and kneading apparatus. 
This department of mixing and kneading 
was not conducted in the ordinary wasteful 
manner, by fermentation, but was entirely 
superseded by the immediate and direct 
application to the flour of water highly 
impregnated with carbonic acid gas and 
atmospheric air. The impregnation and 
kneading being quickly completed, the dough 
was made to descend an inclined plane on to 
a " making up table " situated on the charging 
and discharging apparatus of the ovens. As 
fast as the loaves were made up they were 
placed upon a heated cast-iron pan, which 
gradually advanced into the oven until the 
pan became filled and the oven completely 
charged. 

It may be stated, in general terms, that in 
the above description, from Hebert's patent 
the leading principle in the manufacture of 
aerated bread is supplied. It does not seem 
that the plan was a successful one in Hebert's 
hands, and it very soon died out. In fact 
while the principle was, in the main, correct, 
the mode of operation was so deficient in 
detail it could never have been made a success 
as it originally stood. The one suggestion of 



TOWARDS AERATED BREAD. 31 

casting the dough, after it had been made, 
down a shaft to a " making up table" was 
alone sufficient to ruin it as a working scheme. 
In that act the whole of the preliminary work 
of making a good loaf was missed. So soon 
as the dough was liberated from the mixing 
and kneading reservoir, and splashed down 
upon the mixing table, the gas with which 
the dough had been impregnated would be 
set at liberty, and the mass left become a 
heavy paste which, in the oven, could not rise 
to make a bread that was likely to be 
popular. 

Perhaps if Hebert's invention, in which 
he tells us he had the assistance of some 
foreigner living abroad, had been brought 
into practice on a large scale, the faults in it 
would have been detected and amended. As 
it was, the system remained to be accom- 
plished by the inventive skill of Dauglish. 





CHAPTER V. 

THE ORIGINAL DAUGLISH PROCESS. 

|R. DAUGLISH, in an original paper 
read before the Society of Arts in 
1860, described with great perspi- 
cuity the principles carried out in his 
process. It had long been known to chemists, 
he observed, that water will absorb its own 
bulk of carbonic acid, whatever the density, 
with great readiness, when agitated with it. 
Thus, if a bottle be half filled with pure water 
and half with pure gas, and if at a tempera- 
ture of 62 Fahr. the bottle be closed and the 
water and gas be freely agitated together, 
so much absorption of gas will take place 
that the barometric pressure within the bottle 
will have fallen from the natural atmospheric 
pressure of thirty inches of mercury to fifteen 



THE ORIGINAL DA UGLISH PROCESS. 33 

inches. The gas will be immediately diffused 
through or absorbed by the water, until there 
is an exact balance between the quantity of 
gas held in solution by one cubic foot of 
water and that contained in each cubic foot 
of space within the bottle not occupied by the 
water ; and as this law of absorption is per- 
sistent at all pressures, by increasing the 
density of the gas the quantity absorbed by 
the water will be increased in an equal ratio ; 
and so long as the water is retained under 
the pressure due to the density, so long will 
it hold the gas in solution, but whenever it is 
released from the pressure the gas will escape 
from it with effervescence. 

This simple rule explained, Dauglish 
proceeds to illustrate that if water, holding in 
solution the necessary quantity of carbonic 
acid gas, could be used to incorporate with 
flour in the preparation of dough, without 
any of the gas being allowed to escape from 
it until the dough is fully formed, but then 
be allowed to escape, it would cause the 
formation of the necessary minute bubbles 
of gas, which would distend the dough into a 
perfect sponge, even more perfect than that 
which is obtained by fermentation, since 

3 



34 THE ORIGINAL DA UGLISH PROCESS. 

every atom of water would yield its atom of 
gas, not only between the particles of starch 
and their gluten coat, but also within the 
substance of the coat itself, rendering that 
porous. 

By taking advantage of these facts, Daug- 
lish proceeded successfully. He made an 
arrangement by which he brought together, 
in a closed apparatus, the flour, out of which 
the dough was to be made, and water super- 
saturated with the carbonic acid gas. He 
incorporated the flour with the water and gas 
under pressure, and when the incorporation 
was complete, the mixture was drawn off, 
when it expanded into a spongy mass, and 
produced a dough perfect in character, and 
ready for the oven. 

By this simple method, he, so to speak, 
"set the sponge" without any of the cumbrous 
processes connected with fermentation to 
which reference has been made in a former 
chapter. 

This, he adds, is the new process of bread- 
making. 

It will be felt, as the above description is 
read, that there is no material difference 
between this mode of manufacture and that 



THE ORIGINAL DA UGLISH PROCESS. 35 

proposed by Mr. Luke Hebert. Without 
doubt, the general principle was the same, 
but the details were so different that Daug- 
lish's plan was as successful as Hebert' s was 
unsuccessful. 

In the first place, Dauglish's method of 
mixing was much superior ; but the greatest 
improvement consisted in the mode in which 
the dough was made into loaves ready for 
the oven. 

It will be remembered that Hebert, by 
his method, let the dough pass direct from 
the mixer on to a slab or table where it was 
made by hand into a loaf, or transferred into 
a tin, much to the loss of the carbonic acid 
and to the spoiling of the dough. 

Dauglish by his plan caught the dough as 
it was leaving the mixer ready for the oven. 
By the pressure in the mixer the dough was 
forced through a nozzle or mouth, and as it 
expanded or rose in^the act of leaving the 
nozzle it was ready to be baked. The grand 
secret of success was included in this simple 
and practical contrivance. 

The brief description of the apparatus, as 
it left his hands, is given by its inventor in 
his own words, in the orginal paper read- 



36 THE ORIGINAL DAUGLISH PROCESS. 

before the Society of Arts. It runs as 
follows : 

The apparatus essentially consists of a 
gasholder, and a generator, similar in con- 
struction and principle to, but larger in size 
than, what are used by the makers of aerated 
waters ; of pumps suitable for pumping elastic 
fluids ; and of a mixing vessel, and a water 
vessel in connection, both made so that they 
can be tightly closed to sustain an internal 
pressure of from one hundred to two hundred 
pounds on the square inch. The mixing 
vessel is supplied with flour through a shoot 
which passes from the floor above. The 
water-vessel is supplied with water through 
a pipe which comes from a large cistern at 
the top of the building. 

The mixer is capable of being closed per- 
fectly tight, and is opened by means of a 
proper mechanical contrivance, with the 
greatest facility. One,, man in a few seconds 
can both close and open. 

The order of working, and the time re- 
quired for making a sack of flour of two 
hundred and eighty pounds into dough, are 
as follows. The time is rather over than 
under stated. 



THE ORIGINAL DAUGLISH PROCESS. 37 

Opening lid of mixer and fitting within the 
neck the end of flour-shoot and turning 
water-cock to fill water-vessel . . i minute. 

Passing from top of machine to floor above 

and shooting down a sack of flour . . 3 minutes. 

Returning, closing water-cock, removing 

end of shoot, and closing mixer . . 2 

Withdrawing atmospheric air from mixer 

Pumping gas through water into mixers 

Mixing ...... 



Total . 



3 
10 

7 
26 



At the end of this time the dough is 
ready to be drawn into loaves from a nozzle 
or mouth, through which it is forced by the 
pressure within the mixer ; and as it expands 
or rises in the act of leaving the mouth it is 
ready to be baked immediately. One boy is 
capable of drawing the dough from one sack 
of flour into loaves in fifteen minutes, as fast 
as they can be weighed and placed in the 
oven. 

Thus, in the short space of twenty-six 
minutes, which is subject to no variation, the 
baker can always rely upon having his dough 
ready for the oven, and this with a certainty, 
when the labour is well organised, which is 



38 THE ORIGINAL DA UGLISH PROCESS. 

nearly mathematical. To these facts he 
added in a subsequent essay the following : 

A bakery capable of converting two sacks 
of flour per hour into bread, would, by work- 
ing ten hours continuously out of twenty- 
four, convert twenty sacks per day, or one 
hundred and twenty sacks per week, or 
allowing for contingencies say one hundred 
sacks per week, or working with two sets 
of workmen for twenty hours out of twenty- 
four, double that quantity, say two hun- 
dred sacks per week. Such a bakery could 
be built and fitted with plant and machinery 
ready for work for from ,1,500 to ; 1,700. 
Land and patent licence would be extra. 

A bakery with half the manufacturing 
capacity of the above would cost between 
^"800 and ^900. 

A small bakery, fitted with machinery and 
plant for converting half a sack of flour at a 
time, and suitable for a baker doing about 
twenty sacks per week, could be fitted, 
exclusive of building and ovens, for about 
,250. 

The process was originally described by 
another and independent observer in the 
subsequent account. 



THE ORIGINAL DA UGL1SH PROCESS. 39 

The principle involved, like that in most 
good mechanical contrivances, is extremely 
simple. Taking advantage of the well-known 
capacity of water for absorbing carbonic acid, 
whatever its destiny, in quantities equal to its 
own bulk, Dr. Dauglish first prepares the 
water which is to be used in forming the 
dough, by placing it within a strong vessel, 
and forcing carbonic acid gas into it by the 
aid of a pump put in motion by a small steam- 
engine. 

The gas is formed by the action of pure 
sulphuric acid upon chalk, placed within the 
vessel. The gas is subsequently washed by 
passing it through water, and ascends into 
a gasometer, from which it is pumped, as 
occasion requires, into vessels, within which 
it is combined, under a pressure of about 
100 Ibs. on the square inch, with the water, 
which absorbs it without any appreciable in- 
crease in bulk, and, of course, retains the gas 
so long as it is kept under pressure, and not 
one moment longer. The flour, and salt in 
the form of brine, are conveyed by a shoot 
and a tube into a hemispherical vessel. As 
soon as the necessary quantity has been 
introduced, the valve is closed through which 



40 THE ORIGINAL DA UGLISH PROCESS. 

the flour entered. A cock is turned, and a 
measured quantity of aerated water admitted, 
or rather forced, by high pressure, into the 
hemispherical vessel. A system of knives 
rotating within, effectually kneads the mass. 
After a little time, a dough-tap, as it is called, 
is opened, and the contents of the vessel 
expelled in a continuous stream by the pres- 
sure within. Here it is that the remarkable 
part of the process occurs. 

The closed vessels, the gasometers, and 
the pump, have only been means to one end. 
As the mass leaves the tap it expands, by 
virtue of the escape of the gas imprisoned in 
the water the instant before, into dough, 
which is cut off by an attendant, weighed, 
and transmitted to the oven without coming 
in contact with the human hand for even a 
second. 





CHAPTER VI. 

THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 

|N the quarter of a century during 
which the Dauglish process of bread 
manufacture has now been in practi- 
cal operation, many improvements 
in details have been introduced. The present 
chairman of the Aerated Bread Company 
has paid much attention to improvements in 
details, both before and since Dr. Dauglish's 
death, and to his scientific skill and perse- 
verance we are indebted for several practical 
advancements. 

I propose in the present chapter to explain 
the latest developments of the Dauglish 
design. For this purpose I shall proceed in 
the most elementary manner, step by step, 
so that every reader may follow me. 



42 THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 

STEP I. 

In the factory they begin, practically, with 
the manufacture of the carbonic dioxide, com- 
monly known as carbonic acid gas. As this 
last name, carbonic acid, is that with which 
the public is most familiar, I shall, in spite of 
its being rather antiquated, keep to it. 

Five cubic feet of carbonic acid are required 
to charge thirty-five gallons of water, for 
every two sacks, or five hundred and sixty 
poundSj of flour. This is sufficient for four 
hundred portions of two pounds and a quarter 
each of dough, and for four hundred two- 
pound loaves of aerated bread. 

There is nothing that calls for special 
notice in regard to the production of the 
carbonic acid gas. The gas is made in the 
usual way, as it is made for the manufacture 
of the artificial aerated waters, is collected, 
thoroughly well washed, and stored for use. 
The utmost care is bestowed in washing the 
gas, so that it may be freed from every source 
of impurity ; and a special apparatus has been 
constructed for this purpose. The receiver 
in which the gas is evolved is called the 
generator ; the apparatus in which it is 



THE MODERN AERA TED PROCESS. 43 

washed is called the washer, and the re- 
ceptacle in which it is stored is called the 
reservoir. 

The gas passes from the generator into 
the washer, a series of vessels in which it is 
thoroughly cleansed by water purification. 
From the washer it passes into the reservoir, 
or reservoirs, which hold it ready for use. 

Originally the reservoirs were constructed 
after the old fashion of a series of large gas- 
holders. These having been found incon- 
venient, and expensive to keep in order, have 
been superseded by a set of large strong 
impermeable bags, as reservoirs, which are 
suspended from the ceiling, and which, as the 
gas is drawn from them, collapse. In these 
convenient reservoirs a plentiful supply of 
gas is always kept on hand. 

The gas drawn from the reservoirs is 
pumped by a steam pump into the water 
column or cylinder, in which it is condensed. 
Each water column, or cylinder, is filled with 
forty-one gallons of water at ordinary temper- 
ature, and the gas is condensed in it under a 
pressure of twenty-six pounds to the square 
inch. The water so charged is now ready 
to be applied for raising the dough. 



44 THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 

STEP II. 

In the original process the flour that had 
to be made into bread was submitted to the 
action of the super-aerated water by direct 
transference into what will by-and-bye be 
described as the "mixer." It was found > 
however, in practice, that much difficulty 
occurred in making the gas admix readily 
with the flour and water. Great pressure 
was required, and the mixer, with all the 
tubes and taps connected with it, was ex- 
posed each time to considerable strain. To 
lessen these difficulties a plan has been in- 
troduced, called the wine-whey modification. 

In observing the behaviour of water and 
carbonic acid on flour, it was observed that if 
a weak wine-whey were added to the flour 
with the aerated water, the paste, or dough, 
which resulted was more easily aerated than 
if water alone were used. The water diluted 
with the wine-whey held more carbonic acid 
in solution, and the gluten of the flour, 
softened by the mixture, allowed a more 
equable and effective distention of the dough 
by the gas. Thus much pressure was saved 
in the process of aeration. 



THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 45 

One hundred pounds pressure on the square 
inch was reduced to twenty-six pounds. 

In order to carry out the wine-whey 
diluting process, a vat placed in the upper 
story of the factory is charged with a portion 
of malt and flour, and these are mashed and 
allowed to ferment until a weak and very 
slightly acid thin wine is produced. This 
fluid is cooled by passing over a series of 
cooling surfaces, and then is stored for use 
until it becomes transformed into a vinous- 
whey. From the store holding the whey a 
tube descends, which can be made to com- 
municate with the water cylinder in which the 
process of "aeration is carried out. 

Each cylinder holds, as we have seen, forty- 
one gallons of fluid, and into it, when it is 
about to be charged, eight gallons of the whey 
are introduced to twenty-nine of water. When 
the admixture is complete the gas is let in, 
and the mixture is ready for aeration. 

To aerate the mixture of wine-whey and 
water, the gas from the reservoirs is pumped 
by the steam pump from the elastic reser- 
voirs into the cylinder, at a pressure of 
twenty-six pounds to the square inch, as 
indicated by the pressure-gauge. Charged 



46 THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 

completely at the pressure named, the fluid is 
ready for use, and the second step is completed. 

STEP III. 

We come now to the process to which the 
two steps immediately preceding are pre- 
liminary. We have to understand how the 
flour is converted into dough by aeration. 

Let us suppose that two sacks, or five 
hundred and sixty pounds, of flour, sufficient 
to make four hundred loaves of bread of two 
pounds weight each, have to be produced. 

In the factory there are, projecting from 
the first floor, a series of pear-shaped iron 
chambers, called mixers. The mixers are 
strongly girded so as to be able to bear the 
pressure from within. They are formed in 
three pieces, and they are lined over their 
interior surface with a very pure white hard 
enamel, which can be cleansed like porcelain. 

The upper portion of the mixer, or upper 
neck, projects a little through the floor to 
which it is suspended, into the story above. 
Here it is armed with a cover, which can be 
removed, replaced, and screwed down. 

The lower and narrower portion of the 
mixer, the part which corresponds to the 



THE MODERN AERATED PROCESS. 47 

stem part of the pear, to which the mixer has 
been likened in respect to shape, ends in a 
neck, to which is connected a valve opening, 
which is capable of being closed and opened 
by a long lever, the arms of which extend on 
each side the neck of the mixer. Within the 
mixer are arms which rotate on an axis passing 
through the upper part, and are worked by an 
engine after the neck of the mixer has been 
hermetically closed. The arms by their 
motion cause admixture within the mixer. 

By a small tube the mixer is connected 
with the cylinder of aerated fluid. 

All being ready for work, the two sacks 
of flour are brought along the floor of the 
chamber in which the upper mouth of the 
mixer is situated, the mixer is opened there, 
the flour is poured in, the opening is closed, 
the tap leading from the cylinder of aerated 
fluid is turned on so as to allow the aerated 
fluid to enter, and by the action of the arms 
v/ithin the mixer the flour and the fluid are 
completely incorporated. 

When the incorporation is complete the 
valve in the lower or pear-shaped neck of 
the mixer is opened by a sharp movement of 
the lever, and the precise quantity of dough 



48 THE MODERN AERA TED PROCESS. 

for a single loaf of bread is forced out under 
the pressure of the gas. By a reverse move- 
ment of the lever the dough is cut off, and 
falls into a baking tin which passes under- 
neath on a sliding platform. The dough is 
then conveyed to the oven, where it is 
converted into bread. 

The rapidity with which this process is 
carried out is one of the most striking of its 
many advantages. A few weeks since, I 
minuted the time that was, leisurely, taken 
for converting two sacks of flour into portions 
of dough for four hundred two-pound loaves. 
From the time when the aeration of the 
water was commenced to the time that all the 
dough was tinned and in the oven, a period of 
forty minutes, only, was required. 

In the preparation of the dough by the 
fermentation method, a period of about ten 
hours would have been required. 

And, throughout, everything was effected 
by perfectly pure machinery, and with the 
precision of the most perfectly-acting machine. 




CHAPTER VII. 

WHEAT BREAD AND FLOURS. 

E are brought to a point where we 
may study the changes which take 
place in the various steps of the 
processes described in the two 
last chapters. 

If we take a grain of wheat and divide it 
into two halves from top to bottom, and look 
at the section with a magnifying glass, we see 
three distinct forms of structure. 

All round the outside we see five layers of 

flat cells, which look like coverings or skins. 

Within them there is a layer of square cells 

which, when the grain is moist, are filled with 

a glutinous fluid. 

Within these again, and filling up the body 
of the grain, are large numbers of many-sided 
cells containing starchy material. 

4 



50 WHEAT BREAD AND FLOURS. 

In this section of a wheat grain, we see 
all that is necessary for the support of animal 
life, except the proper quantity of water. 

In the dried wheat there is per cent. 

Of food for building up the) Flesh-forming 13-6 
tissues of the body . . /Mineral . 17 

I5-3 

Of heat-producing, for ani-] Starch . . . 69*0 

mating, life-giving force jFat ... 1-2 

70*2 

Of water 14*5 



lOO'O 

The various kinds of food here named are 
laid up in the grain of wheat in the following 
manner. 

The mineral food combined with the dry 
part or husk, and with a little albuminous or 
tissue-forming food, cerealine, lies in the outer 
layers of the grain. 

The chief part of the tissue-forming food, 
in the form of gluten, sometimes called 
" crude " gluten, is laid up in the square cells 
of the grain. The heat-producing food is 
laid up in the many-sided cells in the body of 
the grain, and consists of the basis of all the 
heat-giving foods, starch with a small quan- 
tity of fat. 



WHEA T BREA D A ND FLOURS. 51 

The water is enclosed or rather diffused in 
the grain, chiefly in combination with the 
flesh or tissue-forming substance. 

The whole of the requirements of food are 
here presented in wheat grain, in so far as 
quality is concerned, but not in correct relation 
to quantity. The proportions are not such 
as would enable life to be healthily supported 
as it would be on milk. In milk the propor- 
tions per cent, are : 

Food for building up the ] ; Flesh-forming 4-92 
tissues of the body . . j Mineral . 070 

- 5-62 
Heat-producing food, for] 

animating, life-giving force} ^'5 



Water ............ 86-88 

- 86-88 



lOO'OO 



If then we strike a comparison between the 
two foods we shall find that in comparison 
with milk as a standard food, wheat is at fault 
in the following proportions. 

Wheat. Milk. 

Flesh foods .... 13-6 4-92 

Mineral foods ... 17 0-70 

Heat foods .... 69-0 7-50 

Water 14-5 86 -88 



52 WHEA T BREAD AND FL O URS. 

Wheat therefore is a standard food as re- 
gards qualities, but not as regards quantities. 
When, however, wheat has been ground into 
flour and made into bread it is capable, if all 
of it be used, of supplying, with the addition 
of water as drink, what is sufficient to sup- 
port life under circumstances favourable to 
existence. In other words, a person can 
manage to live on bread and water, if the 
bread contain all the food principles of the 
grain. 

I have spoken here about wheat in its 
entire form as wheat, that is to say, contain- 
ing all the natural constituents. But before 
wheat is turned into bread, it is subjected to 
the process of grinding into flour, and in that 
process the different parts of the wheat are 
considerably modified according to the method 
that is followed. 

ON THE VALUES OF WHEATEN FLOURS USED 
FOR BREAD. 

I have several times spoken of flours used 
for bread manufacture, and I ought, before I 
proceed further, to define them more dis- 
tinctly than has yet been done. 

It is usual in ordinary conversation to 



WHEA T BREA D AND FLO URS. 53 

speak of " firsts," " seconds," and " thirds " 
in relation to flours, as if it were possible to 
go to a baker's or a miller's and order, dis- 
tinctively, flours of three known values firsts, 
as better and dearer than seconds ; seconds, 
as better and dearer than thirds. In such a 
notion there is considerable error, in this day 
at all events, whatever may have been the 
case in an earlier time. At present we have 
in 'the food market, practically, the following 
classes. I have specimens of each variety 
before me as I write, supplied to me by 
a well-known miller, and I will explain from 
them what is in the market as flour food. 

Whites Flour. 

There is a form of flour which most people 
would call firsts, but which in the mill is 
called " whites" This flour when it is made 
from English wheat is derived from the best 
and whitest kind of wheat. * In this flour the 
wheat has been reduced to the finest powder, 
and the outer portion of the wheat grain has 
been carefully sifted away. The flour con- 
sists of the dried gluten, not the whole of 
it, but a considerable portion, and of the 
interior or starchy part in full complement. 



54 WHEA T BREA D A ND FL URS. 

This constitutes No. i, white flour. From 
this flour the finest white bread is made. It 
is against the general use of this flour, that 
the Bread Reform League has protested. 

Fine Middlings. 

There is another form of flour called, com- 
monly, fine middlings ftotir, or sometimes 
seconds flour. This flour is usually produced 
from English wheat. It is derived from what 
is technically known as red wheat ; or it is pro- 
duced from a rather inferior class of English 
wheat ; or, again, it is produced from imper- 
fect foreign wheats. It differs from " whites" 
or "firsts" in matter of colour. It is of 
darker colour, and it produces a darker and 
often a softer or more doughy bread, but it 
does not differ from the whiter flour by 
having in it the external part of the wheat 
grain. It is, like the whiter flour, composed 
of the gluten and starch chiefly ; but some- 
times it contains more soluble albuminous 
substance than the finer variety, and for that 
reason it does not yield so firm and elastic a 
sponge, or so firm and crisp a bread. 

Coarse Middlings. 
There is a third kind of flour which is 



WHEA T BREA D AND FL O URS. 55 

called "coarse middlings," or "sharps" and 
which consists of a coarse flour or meal. It is 
sometimes called also "coarse" or "bran" 
flour, because it has a coarse, dark appear- 
ance, with evidences of bran, finely ground, 
dispersed through it. In this flour there 
remains a great part of the external layers 
of the wheat grain. 

Whole Meal. 

There is a fourth variety of wheat, to 
which the name of "whole meal" has been 
applied, and about which a great deal has 
been spoken and written during these last 
two years, and towards the value of which, as 
an article of food, Miss Yates has rendered 
such excellent service. The whole meal 
flour contains everything belonging to the 
wheat grain except the most outer parts of 
the grain, the hard woody portions, which, 
being indigestible and irritating, do not admit 
of being taken as food. 

Gramilar Decorticated Flour. 

An improvement on the ordinary whole 

meal flour has been recently introduced in 

the decorticated or granulated flour, which 

Dr. Morfit has done much to perfect. In 



56 WHEA T BREA D AND FLO URS. 

the decorticated whole meal, the extreme 
outer coating of the wheat grain is removed, 
in the first instance, by a special process of 
abrading, and then the whole of the grain is 
reduced to flour. 

The decorticated whole meal flour contains 
the entire edible food of the wheat the 
mineral food, the soluble albuminoids, the 
fibrin, the starch, and all the derivatives 
from the starchy base. It is not so white 
a flour as the " whites," not, perhaps, so 
white as the household flour or the seconds ; 
but it is claimed for it that it is the perfect 
flour, containing in itself all the nourishment 
which wheat can supply, and yielding, there- 
fore, a perfect bread for life-sustaining 
purposes. 

Another kind of flour derived from wheat 
and I have nothing to do in this work 
with any other grain than wheat is called 
" high ground flour." The flour thus defined 
is not ground between stones, but crushed. 
It contains all the constituents of the wheat 
grain except the bran, and in many respects 
resembles the decorticated or granulated 
wheat flour. 

In estimating the value of these different 



WHEA T BREAD AND FL O URS. 57 

flours, we must consider what it is we want 
to recommend in the way of bread for the 
bread consumer before we give an opinion. 
If we want a white loaf, if we wish to supply 
a loaf in which the process of yeast fermen- 
tation has been carried out in its production 
on the steadiest principle of working, we 
must commend the flour called "whites" or 
firsts. If we want a loaf of a similar kind, 
but less white and of cheaper quality, then 
we must commend the " household flour " or 
" seconds." If we want a loaf which has 
in it all the nutrient material for bone, muscle, 
brain, as well as for working power, then we 
must insist on whole meal. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

FERMENTATION AND AERATION. A CONTRAST. 

CHANGES DURING FERMENTATION. 

HE flours above named, when sub- 




jected to the fermentation process 
in order to be turned into bread, 
are somewhat differently acted 
upon according to their quality or character. 

To understand the changes properly, it is 
best to begin with the fine wheat flour from 
which the bran has been removed, because, 
for reasons which will become plain as the 
description progresses, in this flour the 
fermentation is steadiest and most reliable. 

CHANGES DURING THE FIRST STEP. 

The object of mixing together potatoes, 
yeast, and flour in the first step (see page 1 8) 
is to produce a fermenting basis. In boiling 



FERMENTA TIGN A ND A ERA TION 59 

the potatoes, which are rich in starch, the 
starch granules are broken through, and the 
yeast is allowed to reach the starch enclosed 
in the walls of the cells. If the starch cells 
were not broken, the yeast would not produce 
its effect of transforming the starch into a sub- 
stance, which is necessary before a second 
required change takes place. The warm 
water is added to make an efficient mixture 
of the ingredients. The flour is added, ac- 
cording to the common saying, to feed the 
yeast. The part which the flour plays is that 
it assists the fermentation. In the flour there 
exists, as already indicated, a portion of flesh- 
forming substance called crude gluten, and 
some other soluble albuminous substance. 
Under the action of the yeast, aided by the 
soluble albuminous substance, the broken-up 
starch is attacked, and is partly converted into 
dextrin and maltose and glucose sugars, with 
formation of some carbonic acid, under the 
influence of which " the rising or coming to a 
head " is followed by the fall of the dough. 

CHANGES DURING THE SECOND AND THIRD 

STEPS. 

During the second step, when the ferment 



60 FERMEKTA T2ON A ND AERA TION. 

is added to and mixed with the flour to form 
the sponge (see pages 19-21), the fermenta- 
tion is continued, more carbonic acid is pro- 
duced by the fermentation, and the mass rises 
and falls twice, as we have seen. Then when 
the remaining flour, the salt, and the water are 
added, the dough is formed, and in it, as pro- 
ducts of fermentation, alcohol and carbonic acid 
are diffused. By the action of the carbonic 
acid the dough is raised or lightened. 

The mode in which the dough is raised 
under the action of the gas is very interesting. 
The gas, it might be supposed, when thrown 
off so freely, would simply force out its way 
and escape, leaving a heavy or pasty sub- 
stance behind. This is not the case. The 
escape of the gas is interrupted by the 
gluten, which, being thick and tenacious, 
entangles it and is distended by it much as a 
sponge is distended with water, from which 
analogy the term " the sponge " is probably 
taken. 

The origin of the carbonic acid which 
causes the rising of the dough is now well 
understood. It comes from the primary and 
secondary action of the ferment on the 
starchy parts of the flour. In the primary 



A CONTRAST. 61 



steps, owing to the action of the heat and of 
the ferments, the starch is converted into dex- 
trin and sugars, maltose and glucose : next 
under the influence of the yeast-ferment part 
of these are converted into alcohol and car- 
bonic acid. 

The dough, which has by this time been 
formed, consists then of gluten distended with 
carbonic acid gas, like a sponge ; of starch, 
changed into the soluble form by the action 
of heat and the albuminous and yeast fer- 
ments; of the salt that has been added during 
the admixture ; of some saccharine princi- 
ples ; of water and of a certain measure of 
alcohol diffused through the water and through 
the dough by the water. The carbonic acid 
and the alcohol have been developed out of 
the materials that have been used, that is, 
out of the flour. Some of the albuminoid 
parts of the flour have been broken up in 
forwarding the process of fermentation; and 
some of the starchy or amylaceous parts 
of the flour have been broken up under 
the effect of the yeast-ferment, in order to 
furnish the carbonic acid, and the necessary 
accompaniment of that acid, alcohol. 



62 FERMENT A TION A ND AERA TION. 

CHANGES IN THE FOURTH AND FIFTH 
FERMENTATIVE STEPS. 

In the fourth step (see page 22) nothing 
occurs beyond the mechanical changes of 
shape in the manufacture of the loaf, and the 
continuance, in some degree, of fermentation. 
In the fifth stage (see pages 22, 23), when 
the loaf is exposed to the high temperature 
in the oven, a new series of changes occurs. 
The carbonic acid and the alcohol are driven 
off from the dough ; a large quantity of 
water is given off; an external crust is 
formed, and the solid condition which specia- 
lizes bread from dough is brought about. 
The cellular structure seen in bread is the 
indication of the distention to which the 
structure has been subjected by the gas 
during the fermentative ebullition. 

THE AERATED PROCESS. 

By the aerated process of making bread 
all the destructive influence of fermentation 
is prevented. There is no chemical decom- 
position of the flour whatever, and therefore 
no loss of material, while the rising of the 
dough is just as effectively carried out. The 
aerated bread contains, therefore, all the glu- 



A CONTRAST. 63 

ten and all the albuminous food of the wheat, 
out of which the living tissues are constructed, 
as well as the food which ministers to the 
animal warmth and vital activity. 

It is sometimes said by those who do not 
understand the subject that the fermentative 
is a mechanical, the aerated a chemical process. 
The reverse is the fact. The manufacture of 
bread by fermentation is a chemical process in 
the strictest sense of the word. During the act 
of fermentation the dough is a true laboratory, 
in which carbonic acid and alcohol are made 
on an extensive scale. The alcohol is finally 
dissipated, but the carbonic acid is used for 
the same intention as when it is diffused by 
Dauglish's method from the reservoir. The 
aerated process, except in so far as the prelimi- 
narygenerationof carbonic acid is concerned, is 
entirely a mechanical procedure, in and during 
which the dough is, chemically, unaffected. 

Owing to the circumstance that no chemical 
change is produced by the aerated process, 
the whole proceeding is rendered peculiarly 
steady, efficient, and direct, without the inter- 
vention of hand labour. Everything is carried 
on with measured accuracy, the quality of the 
flours used having no important bearing upon 



64 FERMENTA TION A ND A ERA TION. 

the process. This is a matter of very great 
moment in respect both to the economy of the 
manufacture and the quality of the product. 

When the baker is producing bread by the 
fermenting process, he is exposed to the 
risk of exciting changes beyond what he 
desires. The presence of a little excess of 
the soluble albuminous ferments in his flour 
obliges him to take measures for checking 
an excess of fermentation. He therefore 
resorts to different measures which experi- 
ence has taught him are most effective. At 
one time, in order to neutralise the deteriora- 
tion which the gluten of flour undergoes by 
keeping, and thereby to prevent rapidity of 
fermentative changes, sulphate of copper was 
sometimes added to the flour. The late Baron 
Liebig, in 1855, suggested the addition of lime 
in a state of solution without heat. After 
having kneaded the flour with water and 
lime-water, the baker, following Liebig's pro- 
cess, added the yeast, and left the dough to 
itself, supplying a remaining portion of flour 
to the fermented dough at the proper time. 
This, it was said, yielded an excellent elastic, 
spongy bread, free from acid and of agree- 
able taste. The proportions of flour and 



A CONTRAST. 65 



lime-water employed were in the ratio of 
19 to 5 ; and as the quantity of liquid in 
lime-water was not sufficient for converting 
the flour into dough, a sufficiency of ordinary 
water was added. The quantity of lime con- 
tained in this bread was small, 160 ounces of 
lime requiring more than 300 quarts of water 
for solution, while the yield of bread was 
thought to be improved. Nineteen pounds 
of flour kneaded without lime-water gave 
twenty-four and a-half pounds of bread ; the 
same quantity of flour kneaded with five 
quarts of added lime-water produced twenty- 
six pounds six ounces of bread. 

I name Liebig's process because it shows 
that even great chemists had to devote their 
attention to the losses entailed through fer- 
mentation ; and this plan by the great German 
chemist was probably the best of its kind, 
but it did not at any time become very 
popular. 

The agent chiefly used in the bakeries has 
been alum. The people think that alum is 
employed to produce whiteness of bread. 
That result, if obtained by it, is indirect. 
The great advantage of alum is to check too 
rapid fermentation, and it is added, practically, 

5 



66 PER MEN! A TION A ND A ERA TION. 

in proportion as it is required for that intent. 
Hence the inferior breads are more likely to 
be charged with alum than those made from 
the finer sorts of wheaten flour. 

By the aerated process not one of these 
chemical measures is ever demanded. Alum 
would interfere seriously with the working of 
the process, and render the production of a 
good loaf, by aeration, impossible. 

The contrast between the two processes, 
fermentation and aeration, stands out prac- 
tically best in the manufacture of whole meal 
bread. The flour from which whole meal 
bread is made contains an albuminous sub- 
stance called cerealine. This albuminous 
substance sets up, by the ordinary method 
of manufacture, such rapid primary fer- 
mentation that the secondary part of the 
fermenting process, the production of the 
sponge, is rendered nearly impossible. The 
bread has, consequently, to be produced by 
two processes of fermentation. A sponge has 
first to be made out of white wheaten flour, 
and the whole meal has next to be added, 
the result being a loaf, which is really not of 
whole meal, but a mixture of whole meal and 
white meal. 



A CONTRAST. 



67 



By the aerated process no such complicate 
proceeding is at all required. The whole 
meal is put at once, like the finest flour, into 
the mixer ; it is there directly brought into 
combination with the carbonic acid con- 
densed in the water, and, by the one act, 
the dough is transformed into a condition fit 
for the oven. There are thus secured three 
economies, one of labour, a second of time, 
a third of material. 




CHAPTER IX. 



ECONOMIC AND SANITARY ADVANTAGES TO THE 
WORKMEN BY THE AERATED SYSTEM OF 
BREAD MANUFACTURE. 




was of opinion that the 
advantages of his system of bread 
manufacture might be summed up 
under the following heads : 

1. It does away entirely with fermentation 
and with all those chemical changes which, 
in the constituents of the flour, are con- 
sequent upon it. 

2. It avoids the loss consequent upon the 
decomposition of the portion of starch or 
glucose consumed in the process of fer- 
mentation, a loss of from 3 to 6 per cent., 
which he estimated as of about the value of 
,5,000,000 in the total quantity of bread 
made, annually, in the United Kingdom. 



ECONOMIC AND SANITARY ADVANTAGES. 6<; 

3. It reduces the time required to prepare 
a batch of dough from a period of from eight 
to ten hours to less than thirty minutes. 

4. Its results are absolutely certain and 
uniform. 

5. It does away with the necessity for the 
use of alum with poor flour, and the tempta- 
tion to use alum with every kind of flour. 

6. It has the recommendation of absolute 
and entire cleanliness, the human hand not 
touching the dough nor the bread from the 
beginning of the process to the end. Even 
in weighing the dough, if a piece must be 
added to turn the scale, it' is added by the 
use of a knife and fork. 

7. The journeymen are relieved from a 
circumstance most destructive to their health, 
that of inhaling the flour dust in the process 
of kneading. Their places of work, always 
above ground, can easily be well ventilated ; 
their hours of work need never be more than 
the usual hours in ordinary occupations, with 
the recognised hours for meals ; where a busi- 
ness may be so large as to necessitate night 
work, there may be separate sets of hands 
for day and for night work, and each set of 
hands may be able to change from night to 



70 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

day-work in alternate weeks, as is done in 
some other trades and occupations. 

8. Its tendency is to produce a healthier 
condition of the baking trade, and thereby 
to diminish to a great extent the induce- 
ments which lead to the extensive system 
of fraud now practised upon the public by 
the production of adulterated and inferior 
bread. 

9. It effects an immense saving in the 
material from another source, namely, by 
preventing the sacrifice of the nutritive por- 
tion of the grain, hitherto lost as human 
food, by the method of grinding and dressing 
necessary in the preparation of flour for 
making white bread by fermentation. 

10. Together with the preservation of a 
large proportion of the entire quantity of 
wheat converted into flour, there is also the 
important result of the proportion preserved 
(the cerealine), being a most powerful agent 
in promoting the easy and healthy digestion 
of food. This agent is retained uninjured 
by the aerated bread process, but is destroyed 
by the process of panary fermentation. 

Respecting these different advantages, we 
may accept the statement of them as remain- 



ECONOMIC A ND SA NIT A RY ADVA NTA GES. 7 1 

ing as truthful as they were at the date when 
they were originally described. 

The economical advantages of the aerated 
system put forth by the inventor of the 
system, are certainly still deserving of a 
prominent place. At a time such as the 
present, when we are depending upon other 
countries for our supplies of grain to the 
extent of nearly two-thirds of those supplies, 
it is of the utmost importance to secure 
for the nation a system of bread manufacture 
that shall save to the nation all that can be 
saved. It may be said with perfect truthful- 
ness of the aerated system, that it saves all 
that can be saved ; in other words, it sacrifices 
nothing that is fit for consumption as food, 
while it utilizes every wholesome and nutri- 
tious part that can be obtained from the grain. 

At the same time, in the bread made by 
this system there is nothing retained that is 
not useful, pleasant, and beneficial. All the 
old objections which were originally made to 
aerated bread, if there was ever ground for 
them, certainly do not exist in the slight- 
est degree now. The general expression of 
opinion is that the bread is extremely plea- 
sant to taste, and so much is it approved of 



72 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

that large numbers of persons take it with 
them out of town, because they prefer the 
flavour of it to that possessed by any other 
form of bread, and because it does not 
produce acidity. 

I may leave the above-named objection to 
what is commonly called the " taste " of bread 
consumers. A more important point is the 
healthiness and cleanliness of the aerated pro- 
cess. Here there can be no doubt that the 
process offers immeasurable advantages, first 
to the workmen who make the bread, and 
next to the public for whom they make it. 

ADVANTAGES TO THE WORKMEN. 

Of all the evils that have arisen with the 
practice of bread manufacture, one of the 
greatest of them appears to be the long hours 
of night and day work to which the men are 
subjected. This fact has long been recog- 
nized. A statute of Elizabeth expressly 
states the hours to be from five a.m. to be- 
tween seven and eight p.m. between March 
and September, with two and a half hours 
for meals, and from " spring of day " until 
" the night of the same day " between Sep- 
tember and March. Day-work only was 



ECONOMIC A ND SA NIT A RY ADVA NT A GES. 73 

then permitted, and the item for candles is 
supposed to have been for those used for 
examining the state of the bread in the ovens, 
as we now use gas. Later on, however, 
night-work was introduced, the introduction 
being largely due to the origin of a class 
of men called "factors." These were a sort 
of middlemen between the millers and the 
bakers. The bakers having no interest in 
keeping down the price, the millers were 
enabled to realize large profits, and the coun- 
try millers, by allowing these factors a pre- 
mium on the sale of their flour, disposed of 
considerable quantities. The country millers 
also became proprietors of bakers' shops, in 
which they put a journeyman, and allowed 
him from five to seven shillings a sack for his 
labour and charge. These men were in the 
habit of availing themselves of the assistance 
of their friends after working hours. This 
system of helping their friends gradually 
grew into a custom, and was at last enforced 
as a right by those, in commission, when they 
became proprietors of the shops they were 
put in to superintend. Hence the origin of 
night-work among bakers, an origin which 
has now become part of a fixed system of 



74 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

work, owing to the necessities of the time 
and the urgent demand that there is in all 
our large cities for the early morning loaf. 
The grievances which have been enforced 
by this practice have been and are extreme. 
They have often formed matter for parlia- 
mentary consideration. This was the case 
in 1848, when various details of the most 
painful kind were disclosed, and were con- 
sidered as beyond dispute. This was again 
the case in 1862, at which period Parliament 
was so impressed, by what it was forced to 
listen to, that the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department thought it right to 
order a searching and minute investigation 
not only into the grievances complained of, 
but also into the methods of bread-making, 
the places in which it was made, and the 
age and health of the men occupied in 
making it, with a view to remedy and, if 
possible, improve the existing conditions. 

The inquiry thus instituted was entrusted 
to Mr. Hugh Seymour Tremenhere, and 
the result of Mr. Tremenhere's inquiries 
on this subject was embodied in a letter 
addressed to Sir George Grey, Her Majesty's 
principal Secretary of State for the Home 



ECONOMIC AND SANITARY ADVANTAGES. 75 

t . 

Department, in which the propositions recom- 
mended for legislative consideration are the 
following : 

1. That no youth under eighteen be 
allowed to work in a bakehouse later than 
nine p.m., or earlier than five a.m. 

2. That bakehouses be placed under in- 
spection, and subjected to certain regulations 
in regard to ventilation, cleanliness, etc. ; 
and : 

3. That it would be desirable that the pro- 
visions of the Act " for Preventing the Adul- 
teration of Articles of Food " should be made 
more effectual. 

These were the only measures Mr. Tre- 
menhere felt justified in submitting to the 
judgment of Parliament ; but there was an 
important subject to which he considered it 
desirable to direct the attention of the 
journeymen bakers, their employers, and the 
public at large, as not only involving great 
prospective benefits to the journeymen, but 
certain economical and other advantages to 
the community, which would be considered of 
no small value when the conditions of the 
places in which the bread is not unfrequently 
made were more generally known. This sub- 



76 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

ject was the introduction of machinery in the 
process of bread-making, in the discussion 
of which Dr. Dauglish's system of making 
what is called aerated bread was commented 
upon and commended. 

In the report here referred to it was shown' 
that, as a general rule, the work of a London 
journeyman baker begins at about eleven 
o'clock at night, at which time " he makes the 
dough." This is a laborious process, and lasts 
from half an hour to three-quarters of an hour, 
according to the size of the batch or the 
labour required. He then lies down upon 
the kneading board, which is also the cover- 
ing of the trough in which the dough is 
" made," and with one sack under him, and 
another rolled up under his head for a pillow, 
he sleeps for about two hours. He is then 
engaged, continuously, for about five hours, 
" throwing out the dough," " scaling it off,'* 
moulding it, putting it into the oven, taking it 
out of the oven and carrying it to the shop. 
When the bread and roll making is ended, 
the distribution of it begins, and a consider- 
able proportion of the men thus employed 
during the night are also upon their legs for 
many hours in the day, carrying baskets or 



ECONOMIC AND SANITARY ADVANTAGES. 77 

wheeling hand carts, or being in the bake- 
house at work again. Some of these men 
leave off work at various hours, between one 
and six p.m., according to the season of the 
year or the amount of their master's business, 
while others are engaged again in the bake- 
house " bringing out " more batches, until 
late in the afternoon. 

The temperature of a bakehouse ranges 
from about 75 to upwards of 90 Fahr., 
and in the smaller bakehouses approximates 
usually to the higher rather than to the lower 
degree of heat. It is self-evident that the 
loss of the usual hours of sleep, and the hard 
and continuous work for many hours in such 
a temperature as that of bakehouses in general, 
must have a great effect in undermining the 
constitutions of the youths employed, and in 
laying the foundation of that liability to 
various diseases by which the average life of 
a baker is reduced to the age of forty-two. 

Mr. Tremenhere proposed that bakehouses 
should be placed under inspection, and in 
support of this proposition stated, from evi- 
dence taken, the following facts : The 
locality in which the bread of London is 
made is what in houses in general is the coal- 



78 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

hole and the front kitchen, the back kitchen 
being used to store away the flour with the 
other things in daily use. The ovens are 
usually under the street, but in some cases 
the arrangements are reversed and the ovens 
are at the back of the house, and the front 
space is used partly for the flour and partly 
for the manual portions of the work. Mr. 
John Bennett stated in his evidence that 
" many bakehouses in London were in a 
shockingly filthy state, arising from imperfect 
sewerage and bad ventilation and neglect ; 
that the bread, therefore, during the process of 
fermentation, became impregnated with the 
noxious gases surrounding it ; and that many 
journeymen bakers in London slept under 
the pavement in the bakehouses." Another 
witness said, that "the places where he had 
worked had almost always been arches under 
the ground, with no means of ventilation 
except through the doors. These were, 
generally, fearfully hot, and many of them 
infested with vermin. The bakehouses were 
also often so close to the drains that they 
smelt very bad. It was a common practice 
to lock the bakehouses at night, while the 
men were at work ; consequently, there being 



ECONOMIC AND SANITARY AD VANTA GES. 79 

no ventilation except through the doors, it 
was very stifling, and apt to injure the men's 
health." 

Over twenty years have passed since 
the above-named facts were written, and I 
regret to say that no broad satisfactory im- 
provement has been made for the health 
of the men who are engaged in the manu- 
facture of bread by the fermentation process. 
While this treatise, indeed, has been in hand 
there has been a great public clamour once 
again on the subject of bakers and their 
grievances, so that parliamentary enquiry 
may very soon be expected once more to 
take place. 

Dauglish, by his labour, proposed a simple 
method, which, if carried out universally, 
as it might be most easily and practically, and 
as it is by the company which he founded, 
would render the process of bread manufac- 
ture as healthy for the working community 
as any other industrial pursuit, and indeed 
healthier than any other which is carried on 
during the night. Further, I do not conceal 
my own personal opinion that if the system 
were generally known and practised, the 
necessity for night work itself would, as Dr. 



80 THE AERATED SYSTEM. 

Dauglish expected, cease to exist, since 
nothing but the very bad habit of wishing 
for newly-made fermented bread keeps up 
the injurious competition for which night 
work is demanded. 




CHAPTER X. 




PUBLIC ADVANTAGES OF AERATED BREAD, IN j 
RELATION TO HEALTH. 

|P to the present point of the inquiry 
into the Dauglish process of bread 
manufacture I have dealt almost 
exclusively with the manufacturing 
details of the process, and with the compari- 
sons that are obvious as between it and the 
method in which fermentation is resorted to 
as a means for rendering wheaten dough light 
and fitted for bread. 

There have, at the same time, been 
adduced, incidentally, certain facts which bear 
upon the public advantages of the Dauglish 
system. 

I may now summarise these advantages : 
i. The whole value of the edible part of 



82 PUBLIC AD VANTA GES 

the grain employed is utilized. There is no 
waste whatever. 

2. Every class of edible flour of wheaten 
kind, which is that commonly used, can 
be directly made into bread by the process. 

3. No chemical agencies or agents are 
brought into contact with the flour, except 
the necessary carbonic acid, and that in a 
purely mechanical way. 

4. No foreign agents, such as salts of 
copper, alum, or lime, are required for any 
purpose. They, indeed, would only interrupt 
and spoil the process. 

5. The utmost cleanliness attends every 
step of the proceeding. The flour is un- 
touched by the hand; the dough is untouched 
either by hand or foot ; the dough is never 
exposed to the fumes of the bakehouse, nor 
to the emanations escaping from the breath 
and the skin of the workmen ; so soon as ever 
the dough escapes from the mixer it falls into 
the baking tin, and is instantly conveyed to 
the oven. 

6. The workmen are saved many hours of 
exhaustive labour, and enjoy freedom from 
the injuries arising from the inhalation of 
dust and exposure to impure air. To what 



OF AERATED BREAD. 83 

extent they are saved danger in their work, 
compared with those who are engaged in the 
fermentation process, can only be believed 
by persons who have made special inquiries 
into the subject. Dr. Guy, in his admirable 
and painstaking research on this subject, 
discovered amongst one hundred and eleven 
journeymen bakers one hundred and twenty- 
five diseases, or more than one disease for 
each man engaged in the fermenting process. 

It is impossible to gainsay the many and 
great advantages of the aerated system. But 
is there anything that may be gainsaid ? If 
there be, it must be something connected 
with habit or custom, not with the aerated 
bread itself as an article of food. 

In the household nothing but good can be 
told in regard to the appearance of the bread, 
the cleanliness of it, the purity of it. 

It is made in the same shapes as other 
bread, in tinned loaves, in loaves of Paris 
shape, in rolls, in loaves of different sizes. It 
is made from flours of best qualities, from 
white flour and from whole meal. 

It is so cleanly that it is all but impossible, 
even by accident, for any foreign substance 
to get into it. Hairs, remnants of nails, 



P US LIC ADVA NT A GES 



debris from tubs, troughs, and boards, in 
form of splinters of wood and fragments of 
flannel or cloth, are impossible impurities in 
it. 

It does not undergo the sour or acid change 
which is sometimes met with in fermented 
breads. It never contains agents, like alum, 
used for the purpose of giving it whiteness, 
or for stopping secondary fermentation. 

At one time it was said to become more 
quickly dry than the fermented bread. This 
was because it held less water in combination 
with it, and was therefore a more condensed 
food. Goodness or badness on this point 
was matter of opinion, and as opinion seemed 
to favour the possession of a bread which 
retained its moisture, the public wish was 
responded to by the modification of detail of 
manufacture called the wine-whey process, of 
which a description has already beep supplied, 
The aerated bread now is as free from dry- 
ness as any bread that is made. It does 
not dry up, but retains the right quantity of 
water, free from every acidified change, and 
free from mouldiness or other indication of 
decomposition, longer than other bread, so 
that it can be used in the family up to the 



OF AERA TED BREA D. 85 

last if the most moderate care be taken in 
preserving it. 

It was at one time objected to the bread 
that it was deficient in flavour, or that it 
wanted the flavours common to some kinds 
of fermented bread. For my own part, I 
have no recollection of this ever having been 
the case ; but if it were, the objection could 
only have been reasonable at some very early 
stage in the development of the aerated 
method. At present, and for a long period 
past, the flavour of the bread has been all 
that could be desired by the most delicate 
critic ; and, indeed, many choose the bread 
because of its excellent flavour and taste, and 
miss it very much if, from any cause, they are 
temporarily unable to obtain it. This which 
is very distinctly my own experience, is so 
largely shared by others, that many, as 
before stated, carry the bread out of town 
rather than be deprived the advantages of 
it as food. 

It has yet to be asked whether, as an article 
of food, aerated bread is as digestible and as 
nutritive as the bread made by the fermenta- 
tion process. 

The first-named quality, that of digesti- 



86 P UBLIC AD VANTA GES 

bility, comes first in respect to value, because 
if the bread be not easily digestible, its mere 
value as a food, determined from the point of 
view of its chemical value, were of secondary 
consequence. It is most important therefore 
to inquire into its true position as a digestible 
food. 

On this question I venture to speak with 
such authority, and no more, as comes from 
studied observation daily carried out for the 
past ten years, at least. From this experience 
I derive the following conclusions, which will, 
I feel sure, be confirmed by every unpre- 
judiced physician who will take the same 
trouble and labour to arrive at the facts as 
I have done. 

i. The aerated bread never produces 
acidity in the stomach. Even if it be taken 
after it has been cut for some hours and 
exposed to the air, it does not cause either 
acid eructation, or the burning and the heart- 
burn which are often induced by bread that 
has been incompletely made by the fermenta- 
tion process. The reason for this is that it 
does not undergo any acidifying change by 
exposure to air, does not carry free acid into 
the stomach, and does not carry any sub- 



OF A ERA TED BREA D. 



stance into the stomach that can sustain fer- 
mentative changes within that organ. 

2. The bread, being free from any and 
every astringent substance, like alum, does 
not cause irritation of the stomach, nor dis- 
tention, nor sense of constriction. It does 
not constipate. 

3. The bread carries with it no foreign 
hard mechanical particles which are apt to 
lead to mechanical irritation, and to make the 
stomach indifferent to the digestion of other 
foods or drinks which may be taken along 
with it. 

4. The bread is digested quickly and easily. 
This is the common experience of all who 
become accustomed to it. It causes no de- 
pression after being taken, nor feeling of 
weight, nor palpitation, nor irregular circula- 
tion, symptoms which are often observed 
after the use of imperfectly fermented breads. 

5. The bread mixes excellently with other 
foods. It is, if I may so say, essentially 
soluble. It goes well with water, and well 
with milk. 

These indications of the action of aerated 
bread are proofs of its worth as a digestible 
food, and render it of much value in the cases 



P UBLIC A D VA NTA GES 



of children and of those who are advanced 
in life. I do not adduce this in any dis- 
paragement of it for adults and for persons 
of middle life, because, in fact, it is good at 
every age. I name it in particular reference 
to the ages I have specially noticed. 

Dauglish made a singularly happy series 
of observations on the matter of the digesti- 
bility of the bread manufactured on his plan 
as compared with some effects of fermented 
breads. He argued that the injurious effects 
often resulting from the use of fermented 
bread are attributable first to the acetic acid 
or vinegar, which is produced in large quan- 
tities in such bread, in hot weather, by the 
oxidation, from atmospheric contact, of the 
alcohol generated in the process of fermen- 
tation ; and, secondly, to the yeast plant which 
is rapidly propagated during the act of fer- 
mentation, the life of the yeast plant being 
frequently not destroyed by the baking 
when that is ineffectively carried out. Bread 
so modified from the required condition is, 
he says, most indigestible when the functions 
of digestion are naturally weak : from the 
development of the yeast plant in the 
stomach, and the consequent setting up of 



OF AERATED BREAD. 89 

the alcoholic fermentation to derange the 
whole process of digestion and assimilation. 
Again, he adds, there is the alum when 
that is used, the very purpose of which is to 
prevent the solution of gluten at a time when 
it is most desirable, and the very effect of 
which is to cause the bread to enter the 
stomach with a portion of gluten undissolved, 
and unfit to afford proper nourishment. 

The inventor of the aerated system was 
not less happy in his observations upon the 
practice of those primitive nations who sub- 
sist almost exclusively on cereal and particu- 
larly on bread foods. " The millions," he says, 
" of India who feed chiefly on rice, take rice, 
for the most part, simply boiled, while that 
large portion of the human race who feed on 
maize prepare it in many ways, but never 
ferment it." The same is true of the potato 
eater of Ireland and the oatmeal eater of 
Scotland. Nor is wheat always subjected to 
fermentation. In the less civilized states it 
is first roasted and then ground. On the 
borders of the Mediterranean it is prepared 
in the form of maccaroni and vermicelli. In 
the East it is made into hard cakes, or into 
thick and dense masses of baked flour and 



90 PUBLIC AD VANTA GES 

water. Even in our own nurseries wheaten 
flour is baked before it is prepared, with milk, 
for infants' food. 

The necessity of subjecting wheaten grain 
to these manipulations arises, Dauglish insists, 
from its richness in gluten. If a little flour 
be taken in the mouth, the starchy matter is 
easily dissolved by the saliva and swallowed, 
but the gluten remains, a thick, tenacious 
pellet, which, if swallowed,- is extremely in- 
digestible, because it cannot be penetrated 
by the digestive solvents, which in that state 
can only act on its small external surface ; 
hence the necessity to prepare food from 
wheat in such a manner as shall counteract 
the tendency to cohere and form tenacious 
masses. This is the object of baking the 
flour, of making it into maccaroni, or of rais- 
ing it into soft spongy bread. By all these 
means an enormous surface is secured for the 
action of the digestive juices, and this, he 
believes, is the sole object to be sought 
for in the preparation of bread from wheaten 
flour. 

I am myself of opinion that in the above 
observations Dr. Dauglish has supplied 
the most rational of all explanations bearing 



OF AERATED BREAD. 91 

on the advantages of treating flour in the 
manufacture of bread. The secret of success 
lies in the distribution of the gluten over an 
enormous surface, so that it may be readily 
acted upon by the digestive fluids. A great 
number of physiological chemical changes 
(probably fermentation itself) are due to 
this matter of distribution of surface. The 
aeration of the blood in the lungs is brought 
about by such distribution. The changes 
which take place in the minute blood-vessels 
of the extreme parts of the body are pro- 
duced in a similar manner. 

The best bread, therefore, and the most 
easily digested, is that in which there is the 
completest distribution of gluten, combined 
with the fullest amount of that substance, and 
uncontaminated by the presence of any foreign 
substance, either introduced or produced by 
the method of manufacture. 

In the aerated bread we have a food in 
which these conditions are fulfilled in the 
most complete manner. The starch of the 
bread is well cooked, and is ready for assimi- 
lation and for becoming the fuel of the animal 
furnace. The gluten, prepared in the most 
elaborate form for subjection to the digestive 



92 PUBLIC A D VANTA GES 

juices and for being made soluble by them, is 
preserved in full quantity to fulfil its purposes 
in the economy for the construction of the 
vital tissues. 

The aerated bread undergoes ready solu- 
tion in the stomach. It does not produce 
acidity ; it does not give rise to distension 
nor flatulency ; it does not impair appetite by 
causing indigestion. 

The only serious objection I have ever heard 
raised to the use of aerated bread is that it may 
be too rich in nitrogenous food to suit those 
who are constitutionally disposed to such affec- 
tions as gout and chronic rheumatism. The 
idea is entirely hypothetical, and is altogether 
contradicted by the results of experience. 
Persons who are of rheumatic and gouty dis- 
position are often extremely disposed to 
acidity, and require, more than others, foods 
which are not liable to undergo fermentation 
during the digestive process. To such per- 
sons I find bread which has simply been 
aerated the best of all cereal foods. It may 
be given to them freely by merely withdraw- 
ing a little animal food, if that be necessary, 
and I have many times seen all the symptoms 
of rheumatic and gouty indigestion disappear 



OF AERATED BREAD. 



93 



by the one act of substituting aerated for 
fermented bread. 

To those who require a rich nitrogenous 
diet; to children who are muscularly feeble; 
to persons who are suffering from diseases 
attended with much muscular prostration; to 
those who being in health are exposed to 
great physical labour; to those who are in 
declining years, the aerated bread is the best, 
I think, that can be supplied, apart altogether 
from its perfect cleanliness in manufacture 
and its economy in production. 




APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 




A BRIEF PERSONAL OUTLINE OF THE LIFE OF 
DR. DAUGLISH. 

|T will interest many readers to have 
at command the succeeding brief 
outline of the life of the inventor 
of the aerated system of bread 
manufacture. The facts came into my 
possession too late to be included in the 
body of this work. 

John Dauglish was born in the parish of 
Bethnal Green, London, in the year 1824. He 
was the son of William and Caroline Dauglish, 
and on his mother's side was descended from 
Sir Richard Baker, the well-known chronicler of 
London. His father held a confidential position 
in one of those large East Indian houses which 
were swept away in the panic of 1847. The boy, 
who manifested peculiarities at a very early age, 
was educated at Dr. Alexander Allen's school at 



APPENDIX. 



Hackney, but could never learn in class. He 
always had to study alone. Having no verbal 
memory, he yet retained facts with great facility; 
and while he could scarcely learn a piece of 
poetry or remember the conjugations of a Latin 
verb, he enjoyed mathematical studies and de- 
lighted in drawing. He had no gift for languages ; 
it was an impossibility to master them, and even 
in later life he could not overcome that difficulty ; 
but he evinced mechanical talents at a very early 
age, and constructed a steam engine, making all 
the parts which most lads would have found it 
necessary to buy, and with few tools and appli- 
ances. He also while a boy invented a paddle- 
wheel on new principles ; but when his model 
was completed, he, to his intense mortification, 
found that another mind had conceived the same 
idea and had carried it into effect. His regret 
was counterbalanced in some degree by the per- 
fect working of the paddles, which were in every 
respect like his own. 

After leaving school, two or three different 
paths in life opened out to him, but he was not 
happy in any; and although he worked for a time 
under his father, he was so evidently in his wrong 
place, that his spirits were depressed and his 
health seriously affected. During this period his 
mind passed through successive stages of inquiry 
and speculation. The philosophy of the German 
school and of Carlyle were studied. He lived very 
much apart, sought few acquaintances, and during 
his most uncongenial occupation, spent a dreary 



LIFE OF DAUGLISH. 99 

and saddened life. As he advanced in years his 
views were much influenced by the teaching of 
Maurice and Kingsley. 

In 1848 Dr. Dauglish married the second 
daughter of William Consett Wright, of Upper 
Clapton. About this time he was much engaged 
in literary pursuits. ,He contributed an article 
to the British Quarterly on the Labour Question, 
which was well thought of. 

It was now suggested, by one who knew the 
bent of his mind, that he should go to Edinburgh 
to study for the medical profession. He took his 
family there in February 1852, and for nearly 
four years he devoted his energies to the necessary 
studies. Here the early difficulties of his boyish 
days were a source of great trouble. He had 
much difficulty in mastering technicalities. He 
was a good dissector, and obtained great praise 
from Professor Goodsir, who always discerned true 
industry and skill. He became assistant to 
Professor Hughes Bennett, took the charge of an 
extra microscopic class, and was also employed by 
Professor Henderson. For all these gentlemen he 
felt very deep esteem and gratitude. In chemistry 
he studied under Professor Gregory, whose kindly 
manners and friendliness caused his classes to be 
very popular. 

During his residence in Edinburgh, Dauglish 
made but few acquaintances. His fellow students 
thought him reserved and quiet, and, in student 
fashion, bestowed upon him the cognomen of 
" Shakespeare " ; from a fancied resemblance to 



ioo APPENDIX. 



the great dramatist. He passed his examinations 
well, but there was nothing particularly brilliant 
in this part of his career. His thesis was 
considered worthy of being bracketed with one 
other for the gold medal. He took the M.D. 
degree. 

In November 1855 he came home from 
college, with a new idea about making bread, 
namely, that it would be possible to enclose flour 
in an air-tight receptacle, and to force into it 
aerated water, so as to render yeast unnecessary. 
He had suffered so much from the dry insipid 
bread of Edinburgh, that he had had bread made 
at home ; and the uncertain nature of each batch, 
with the difficulty of procuring good yeast, had 
led him to make a series of experiments which 
were the beginnings of his inventions. 

At the conclusion of his medical studies he 
went to Malvern to study hydropathy, and was 
nearly a year there. During this period he was 
steadily working out his inventions. Afterwards 
moving to Brighton, he tried his first experi- 
ments. He found a working mechanic, who made 
a little model machine from his drawings. The 
skill he possessed in mechanical drawing was 
one of the chief factors in the success afterwards 
obtained. No verbal explanation could have 
conveyed the idea which the inventor was able 
to demonstrate with perfect clearness on paper, 
and he always supplied every working drawing 
himself. 

The model was complete; the various mixtures 



LIFE OF DA UGLISH. 101 



for the production of carbonic acid gas were intro- 
duced into it, the flour and the water. The experi- 
menter watched the result with the usual anxiety. 
An explosion or success, which would it be ? His 
theory proved to be right, and he was convinced 
that with perseverance it could be developed. 

In 1856 Dr. Dauglish took out his first patent, 
entitling it " An Invention of an improved Method 
of Making Bread " ; and he wrote to Messrs. Carr, 
of Carlisle, to ask their co-operation. In their 
factory the model machine was erected, and the 
" aerated bread " first made. The experiments 
were perfectly successful, and here the name of 
" aerated bread " was first suggested. It now 
remained to bring the invention before the public, 
to make it a successful monetary speculation. 

But many troubles arose. Different large houses 
took up the invention ; but from its novelty, from 
the elementary construction of the machinery, 
and from the difficulty of inducing workmen to 
lay aside preconceived ideas of baking after fer- 
menting, there were continual failures. The prin- 
cipals were disgusted, and there was so much 
worry and trouble that the inventor gave up the 
struggle in despair, and taking up medical practice, 
which he had laid for the time entirely aside, met 
with sufficient success to warrant the belief that 
he would become a successful physician. In spite 
of this, his project could not be relinquished, and 
again he determined to devote all his attention 
to it, and to try once more whether it could not 
be made successful. 



APPENDIX. 



The earnestness he displayed in his renewed 
efforts led different friends to rally round him, and 
at last a model bakery was erected at Islington. 

Dr. Dauglish superintended every detail, and 
the attempt proved to be a great success. Most 
of the leading physicians of the day gave their 
decided and unequivocal approval. The aerated 
bread was introduced into various hospitals, and 
with scarcely a dissentient voice the invention was 
declared to be one of the most important and 
useful of the day. 

For a lecture delivered by Dr. Dauglish before 
the Society of Arts, he gained the silver medal of 
that Society. To the Press he was under great 
obligations. Nearly every paper and magazine 
followed the example of the Times in giving 
publicity to a scheme so novel and practical. 

Unhappily Dr. Dauglish quickly began to feel 
how seriously these labours and anxieties had 
affected his health. Although his object was in part 
effected, he. could not rest. He was advised to go 
abroad, and after many delays he took his wife 
and children to Veytaux, on the Lake of Geneva. 
He spent the winter of 1864 on this spot. At 
first the' change of scene, the extreme dryness of 
the atmosphere, and the elasticity of the air, 
seemed to do him real good. His mind, however, 
could not be diverted. He was always planning 
new improvements, and was distressed by the 
accounts of failures and losses which came from 
England ; he got nervous and feeble, and began 
to feel that he could only walk on level ground. 



LIFE OF DAUGLISH. 103 

In the spring he was hastily summoned home 
by important business, and left Switzerland with a 
feeling of disappointment and distress. The winter 
of i 864 was a season of deep anxiety. He re- 
mained in London long enough to set matters 
straight, but never himself recovered from the 
effects of all this trouble. He sought health in 
different places, and in August 1865 went to Paris, 
intending to go southward, but the anxieties of 
the past winter had proved too much for him 
to bear. He became seriously ill in Paris, and 
although the opinion of the physicians there was 
not such as to cause great alarm, he desired most 
anxiously to return to England, a desire which 
was accomplished with difficulty. On his return 
to London he consulted one of our most eminent 
men, who gave the first unfavourable opinion, and 
then went to Malvern, where, often before, he 
had gained strength and health. Here, while his 
serious illness much increased, he manifested the 
utmost patience, his mind remaining clear, active, 
and collected to the end. 

Dr. Dauglish was in the midst of his family to 
the very last evening of his life, taking interest 
in their concerns, and going to bed more com- 
fortably and hopefully than he had done for many 
nights past. He sank from effusion of water in 
the pericardium, and died painlessly on Sunday, 
1 4th January, 1866, in the forty-second year of 
his age. B. W. R. 



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